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Was ist ein Medium? Das, was verändert (verbessert, reformiert)

17. Mai 2009

In Vorbereitung des Besuchs von Jay Bolter an ‚meinem‘ Institut (live auf USTREAM am 19.5. ab 19:30 Uhr, Hashtag #jdb) lese ich noch einmal Remediation quer, und stelle fest, dass es sich lohnt, die Bedeutung dieses Wortes noch einmal zu diskutieren. Bei einer adhoc Übersetzung ins Deutsche schließt man schnell auf (Neu-)Vermittlung, da ja ‚to mediate‘ drin steckt – im Fall leitet sich ‚remediation‘ jedoch von ‚remedy‘ (Mittel, Gegenmittel, Abhilfe) ab:

re·me·di·a·tion : the act or process of remedying [Merriam-Webster]
remedy·ing : to provide or serve as a remedy for : relieve
synonyms see correct [Merriam-Webster]

Nach dieser einführenden Klärung nun ein Auszug aus Remediation (Bolter/Grusin, 5th ed., 2002, S. 65), der klar vor Augen führt, dass sich Wesen und Funktionsweise eines Mediums im Medienvergleich nicht nur erschließt, sondern dass ein Neues Medium selbst nur durch die Beziehung zu anderen Medien entsteht (Fettsetzung stammt von mir):

„What is a medium?
We offer this simply definition: a medium is that which remediates. It is that which appropriates the techniques, forms, and social significance of other media and attempts to rival or refashion them in the name of the real. A medium in our culture can never operate in isolation, because it must enter into relationships of respect and rivalry with other media. There may be or may have been cultures in which a single form of representation (perhaps painting or song) exists with little or no reference to other media. Such isolation does not seem possible for us today, when we cannot even recognize the representational power of a medium except with reference to other media. If someone were to invent a new device for visual representation, its inventors, users, and economic backers would inevitably try to position this device over against film, television, and the various forms of digital graphics. They would inevitably claim that it was better in some way at achieving the real or the authentic, and their claim would involve a redefinition of the real or authentic that favors the new device. Until they had done this, it would not be apparent that the device was a medium at all.“

4 Kommentare leave one →
  1. axel77 permalink
    17. Mai 2009 7:59 pm

    Super! Danke.

    Jetzt fehlt nur noch „hypermedicy“. 🙂

  2. 17. Mai 2009 8:08 pm

    S. 33: „As a counterbalance hypermediacy is more complicated and various. In digital technology, as often in the earlier history of Western representation, hypermediacy expresses itself as multiplicity. If the logic of immediacy leads one either to erase or to render automatic the act of representation, the logic of hypermediacy acknowledges multiple (S. 34) acts of representation and makes them visible. Where immediacy suggests a unified visual space, contemporary hypermediacy offers a heterogeneous space, in which representation is conceived of not as a window on to the world, but rather as „windowed“ itself–with windows that open on to other representations or other media. The logic of hypermediacy multiplies the signs of mediation and in this way tries to reproduce the rich sensorium of human experience. On the other hand, hypermediacy can operate even in a single and apparently unified medium, particularly when the illusion of realistic representation is somehow stretched or altogether ruptured. For example, perspective paintings or computer graphics are often hypermediated, particularly when they offer fantastic scenes that the viewer is not expected to accept as real or even possible. Hypermediacy can also manifest itself in the creation of multimedia spaces in the physical world, such as theme parks or video arcades. (@link to Chapter 11, „The theme park, the city, and the mall,“ p XX) In every manifestation, hypermediacy makes us aware of the medium or media and (in sometimes subtle and sometimes obvious ways) reminds us of our desire for immediacy.“

    –> Der Herr Manovich hat da wohl ein Kapitel als *.rtf genicked:


  3. 17. Mai 2009 8:30 pm

    Und hier fügt sich alles nochmal zusammen (S. 70):

    „The two logics of remediation (i.e. immediacy & hypermediacy, J.H. ) have a social dimension for the viewers as well as the practitioners. We have so far used the term immediacy in two senses: one epistemological, the other psychological. In the epistemological sense, immediacy is transparency. the absence of mediation or representation. It is the notion that a medium could erase itself and leave the viewer in the presence of the objects represented, so that he could know the objects directly. In its psychological sense, immediacy names the viewer’s feeling that the medium has disappeared and the objects are present to him, a feeling that his experience is therefore authentic. Hypermediacy also has two corresponding senses. In its epistemological sense, hypermediacy is opacity – the fact that know- (S. 71) ledge of the world comes to us through media. The viewer acknowledges that she is in the presence of a medium and learns through acts of mediation or indeed learns about mediation itself. The psychological sense of hypermediacy is the experience that she has in and of the presence of media; it is the insistence that the experience of the medium is itself an experience of the real. The appeal to authenticity of experience is what brings the logics of immediacy and hypermediacy together. “

    Ich tippe übrigens nicht brav ab – wenn man eine Phrase eines so prägenden Buches eintippt, dann findet man immer irgendwo im Web ein schon bestehendes Zitat zum kopieren.

    Quelle in diesem Fall:

    Klicke, um auf 46.pdf zuzugreifen

  4. axel77 permalink
    17. Mai 2009 9:38 pm

    Danke, Das Web als Zitatsverfolgständigungsmaschine!

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